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Building and consolidating democracy as a single system of governance

We conclude from the above that the international system is the relations of power and control among the countries of the world

Where the distribution and concentration of international powers, and the nature of that distribution. Or it is the environment in which the parties in the relationships work

International, especially countries.

The second topic: The development of the international system

The stage that followed the end of the Cold War, with the disappearance of communism and the demise and disintegration of the Soviet Union and the system that it ruled communist and socialist in Europe and beyond, was characterized by characteristics and characteristics, even if some of them carried the previous characteristics, but the fluidity of change for each new variable represented a new stage in the international system, and the book notes that this stage It is the stage that characterized the international system as an order due to the presence of a force that forcibly demands the imposition of its agenda on the world, and all others have to do is submit and submit to its will. Yes, the fluidity of the international system as submission was during the era of the Cold War between the two powers to the areas of polarization surrounding it, but it was not in the current form that followed. End of the Cold War.

That stage was also represented by features that represented the beginning of the wedge of the American-style international system, and this may be due to what politicians, led by successive American presidents, called for: that the current era is

The Pax American era is and should remain so.

In view of the above and knowledge of what the international system is, is it new? Or an old continuous one of what came before it? We will eat

The topic is based on the following points:

Although calls for a new international or world order date back to the nineteenth century or more

What was meant by it was the legal system or a system for controlling and governing states as a legal system, which was later expressed by the League of Nations or the United Nations.

However, as a system, it was intended to be new and from a Western European perspective, different from the calls of countries from the Third World after World War II to find a new international economic system that meets their ambitions, and Western calls to create such a system returned in the following two conferences.

A- The Helsinki Conference on European Security and Cooperation in 1975 (note that the conference began in Helsinki on July 3, 1973 and continued its work in Geneva on September 18, 1973 until July 21, 1975, and ended its work on August 1, 1975 in Helsinki as well), which came to establish a new international order. An alternative to the European system that existed

Ten principles are


First: equality in sovereignty and respect for the rights arising from it.

Second: Do not use or threaten force.

Third: The inviolability of international borders.

Fourth: The territorial integrity of countries.

Fifth: Peaceful settlement of disputes.

Sixth: Non-interference in internal affairs.

Seventh: Respect for human rights and basic freedoms, including freedom of thought, conscience, religion and belief. Eighth: Equality in rights and the right of peoples to self-determination.

Ninth: Cooperation between countries.

Tenth: Honorably fulfilling the obligations arising from international law.

This conference was the subject of a bargaining deal between the United States as the leader of Western Europe in the talks

With the Soviet Union, which needed American wheat (food), which the United States obligated

Political conditions related to respect for the Helsinki Principles, especially human rights, in the Soviet Union as a condition

To export wheat to it, which was known at the time as political wheat, in implementation and application of the Helsinki Principles of 1975.

B- As for the principles of the Paris Conference on European Security and Cooperation, which was held on November 31, 1990, they came to establish the new foundations of the international system, not within the European framework, but rather in the global framework, which are

Eight principles

First: Building and consolidating democracy as a single system of governance.

Second: Securing human rights and basic freedoms.

Third: Responsible economic freedom.

Fourth: Friendly relations between countries.

Fifth: Security.

Sixth: European unity.

Seventh: Supporting the United Nations and enhancing its role in promoting international peace, security and justice. Eighth: Recognizing the role of the United Nations, affirming commitment to its principles and goals, and condemning any violation of its principles.

C- In the context of orientation to the future, the Paris Charter stated the following six trends:

First: the human dimension.

Second: Security.

Third: Economic cooperation.