Main menu


distinction between civil wars

Actors other than the two great states, the expanding role of ideology, and the weakness of distinction between civil wars

International wars, the emergence of the role of public opinion, and the technical revolution.

Since 1991, the unipolar phase began, as the United States of America dominated the world, and with it, former President George Bush (Sr.) (1989-1992) announced the birth of the new world order, in a speech before Congress, in which he said: “We are looking forward to a world order that becomes... More liberal regarding the threat of terrorism.” Then he presented the American vision for the new world order before the United Nations General Assembly, saying: “We have a vision based on the new participation of states, a participation that goes beyond the Cold War and is based on consultation and collective international cooperation, especially through regional international organizations, a participation united by principle and the rule of law. It is supported by equal sharing of costs and obligations, and aims to increase democracy, prosperity, peace, and arms reduction.”

The term "system" It is considered one of the most widely used terms in various knowledge and sciences, especially in the aftermath of World War II, where systems analysis and systemic visions grew in looking at various natural and human phenomena. Political scientists, like others in various disciplines, have worked hard to introduce the idea of order at the international level. Waltz defined it as: For example, it is a group of units that interact with each other. On the one hand, the system consists of a structure or structure, and on the other hand, it consists of units that interact with it. Perhaps “Stanley Hoffman” He is more specific in his vision of the international system, as he sees it as a pattern of relations between the basic international units, and this pattern is determined by the structure or structure of the world, and changes may occur in the system due to technological development, a change in the main goals of the units of the system, or a result of a change in the pattern and form of conflict. Between the various units that make up the system.

As for "Mamon Kaplan" He defined it as the existence of a set of rules, values and standards

The interconnected relationships that govern the functioning of relations between countries and determine their regularities and imbalances during a certain period of time. And close to this definition is what Kenneth Waltz said. And Maurice goes

East et al. point out that the international system “represents patterns of interactions and relationships between political agents of a terrestrial nature - states - during a specific time


Hence, we can say in other words that the basic elements that make up the international system are:

Three main elements


The existence of rules that regulate interactions between units of the international system, and these rules are what is expressed in international law, charters, treaties, and international norms, such as the right to sovereignty, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, diplomatic norms, and others.

B. The units that interact with each other are states, international organizations, and institutions with multiple (international) presence, such as international media institutions and multinational companies, as well as people who

They play international roles.

C. The interactions that take place between the units of the system, whether in political fields or in other fields such as economic, social, security, cultural, sports, etc.

It is worth noting that the idea of an international system is not a modern or late idea

Rather, it is an ancient idea that goes back to the roots of history, during which man tried to represent the world

The ideal model in which all human beings live on the principle of human unity based on legal foundations - natural, religious, or positive - without discrimination between the members of this system due to color, religious or ethnic belief. However, the idea collided with the opposition of the countries existing at that time, as The Christian world witnessed wars and conflicts that made the idea of states and peoples being subject to a single law considered a kind of fantasy. However, the failure of the idea in the field of application did not erase it from human memory, as the idea of an international system would emerge from time to time, and the idea began to develop with the emergence of the idea of the contract theory. The social contract advocated by philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as the idea of the social contract based on regulating the relationship between the rulers and the ruled transferred this relationship - in European society - into an organized legal system that prompted many researchers and thinkers to develop the idea so that it A conscious idea based on organizing the relationship between countries, such that this relationship is based on countries giving up part of their rights and obligations in exchange for obtaining privileges from others, such as peace, mutual interests, and others. Thus we find thinkers such as “David Easton” He establishes his theory of political systems on the basis that political life is a body of interactions with special boundaries and surrounded by social systems that continuously affect it. As for Gabriel Almond, he was more specific and clear when he described the political system as “a system of interactions that exist in every Autonomous societies that perform functions of integration and adaptation within these systems and towards other societies - by means of employing or threatening to employ means of legitimate coercion in a significant or

The Treaty of Westphalia promised Signed by a group of European countries in 1648 AD

Following the wars and conflicts that these countries witnessed for a long period of time

The treaty crystallizes the beginning of the activity of the legal system of the nation-state. Hence, some consider that the beginning of the international system was as a result of this treaty. The importance of this treaty comes as it is the first serious and organized effort to establish an international system on legal foundations and joint cooperation among its members instead of wars and conflicts. This treaty also regulated the relations between these countries according to a common law and specified a mechanism for its implementation through consultation among its members to solve their problems on the basis of equality of rights and duties among the members.